D. Olshansky – exists in the form of political programs, manifestos, sets of slogans “[1
Of course, political culture is one of the main qualitative features of political subjectivity. However, the author believes that it is not limited to the subject – the individual, the individual. Social groups and communities are involved in politics. They are the collective carriers of certain forms of culture. V. Shapovalov argues that “… the importance of studying culture is not limited to discovering something new to understand only the culture itself: such a study is important to clarify the importance of almost all or at least many aspects of society” [15 , c. 552].
In the political marketing analysis it is necessary to pay special attention to those numerous factors influencing the formation of political culture of a certain society. To them the author would include historical preconditions, level of the general culture of the country, the people. Since political culture is a part of it, it in any case accumulates previous experience. American scientists K. Hall and G. Lindsay note: “… to understand development, to know the past is necessary, it also provides information about the forces that operate today” [16, p. 551].
Theoretical political marketing analysis of the category of political culture provides an opportunity to review its functions. It is necessary to pay attention to the discrepancy between the political culture of society and this political system. If this is not taken into account, the methodological reference to the distinction between functional and dysfunctional elements of culture in relation to a particular political system disappears.
A special place in the theoretical political marketing analysis of political processes is occupied by political ideology. “Any structure,” writes G. Pocheptsov, “is forced to create its own ideology, even the most primitive, in order to clearly distinguish itself from other similar, competitive structures (otherwise there is a merger of their images)” [17, p. eleven].
Political ideology, being a system of beliefs, convictions and views, reflects, as we understand it, the socio-political reality through the prism of the interests of large social groups. Elements of knowledge about reality fit into the content of ideology. Political forces use ideology to justify their goals and select the means to achieve them. Political concepts, doctrines and programs are developed on the basis of ideology. It feeds the motivational base of collective political action and behavior. “The ideology of large social groups – writes D. Olshansky – exists in the form of political programs, manifestos, sets of slogans” [1, c. 295].
Thus, we can conclude that the theoretical political marketing analysis of political processes as part of political marketing analysis is an important element of research on a wide range of phenomena of political action. By examining and studying political institutions, political power, political behavior and political activity, political leadership, political culture of society, as well as political ideology, one can more carefully and productively paint a picture of the entire political field, its subjects and objects.
Theoretical political marketing analysis can be continued as an applied study. “It is very important to keep in mind, – says V. Yadov, – that any research focused on solving theoretical problems can be continued as an application” [18, p. 78]. In our opinion, only in the context of a specific situation is applied political marketing analysis and should reveal the causes of the problem, explain its symptoms and content. Political scientist A. Solovyov notes that “… it is the specific political situation in all the richness of its components and phenomena is the main subject of applied political analysis” [19, p. 434 – 435].
In the framework of applied political marketing analysis, the situation or events are considered as a certain integrity that has its own logic, sources of movement, growth limits and other parameters. In this sense, applied political marketing analysis should, if not explain, at least rationalize and describe the factors of the political process to predict further developments. Here we completely agree with A. Zdravomyslov who concerning writes: “… Before forecasting any phenomenon, it is necessary to open the mechanism of its causal communications, not only to know the reasons causing this process, but also to express certain assumptions as to how the course of events will continue … “[5, p. 83].
In our opinion, applied political marketing analysis is fundamentally focused on the reflection of unique, individual events and situations. Its applied orientation involves the solution of certain universal problems in the study of the situation: the distribution of conditions, external context and localized events; identification of spatio-temporal parameters of the situation, showing the main limitations of the actors; separation of all entities operating in these circumstances; assessment of the balance of power of these entities; the most important actions and interactions; specific preconditions, reasons and factors influencing the behavior of subjects; consequences of emerging events.
In the study of the political market by the method of applied political marketing analysis, the author would supplement the political assessment of the situation with the use of psychological, sociological, anthropological, political and other methods of analysis of various aspects of behavior, development and implementation of their positions, basic interactions. “Political market research, – emphasizes V. Bebyk, – involves the use of mainly classical methods of political science: systematic and comparative analysis, expert and social surveys, socio-psychological research, modeling, mathematical and statistical methods of data processing” [20 , p. 82].
In our opinion, it should be emphasized that the main difficulties in applying applied political marketing analysis in identifying the factors of any political process are related to the ability to interconnect different approaches and techniques of situation research, combine conclusions and information different techniques.
Thus, an innovative and most important element of the study of political processes in Ukraine and in the world is political marketing analysis. On the basis of political marketing analysis, the basic requirements for studying specific problems, finding the most acceptable solutions and determining the necessary technological means and methods of activity are formed. The study of political processes by the method of political marketing analysis as a progressive and effective way to identify and evaluate potential actors in political action, designed to solve problems of more complex nature. Namely: on the basis of political marketing analysis of past and present events to develop a forecast of further development of the political situation, to build a model of the future situation.
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The current problem of finding political leaders in Ukraine. Abstract
The reality of modern Ukraine is this: the historical ground is being prepared for the emergence of qualitatively new political and economic elites and qualitatively new leaders. Today, no forecast will answer the question: will it happen quickly or will it take a long time to grow modern competent, honest leaders
The problem of finding or training leaders for modern Ukraine is the subject of theoretical and applied discussions and has already become acute for the country. The article outlines different approaches to assessing the problem of leadership in Ukraine, suggests ways to solve practical problems.
Modern Ukraine seems to be accustomed to deficits. If you have money, you can buy everything. Thus, we still recorded that there is a shortage of money. What part of the population is another question. If we carefully analyze the situation in Ukraine, we will see that there is another deficit – leaders. Not bosses, there have always been enough of them in Ukraine, namely leaders.
For example, during the polls conducted by the All-Ukrainian Sociological Service to the question: “If the election of the President of Ukraine took place today, who do you see as the President?” more than 90% of respondents (2,400 people in a representative sample) shared their sympathies between the three politicians (let the reader guess who these politicians are).