N. The efficiency of the use of natural resources of the agro-industrial complex.

N. The efficiency of the use of natural resources of the agro-industrial complex.

Technology can increase the “return” of the environment, but there is often a risk of its deterioration, as in the case of excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture.

Overpopulation in a limited area of ​​one country, combined with a high level of technological development and needs for natural resources, can lead to an increase in the “press” on the environment in other countries. An example is Japan, which affects the environment, in particular, Southeast Asia (by importing timber from Thailand, etc.).

Thus, the relationship between scientific and technological progress, demographic and economic factors becomes international.

The experience of industrialized countries shows that in the future, following measures to reduce mortality, it is important to consciously regulate the birth rate, as a result of which it is possible to achieve scientific stabilization of the population. For example, the high birth rate in today’s Tajikistan (37 births per 1,000 population) is lower than it was 80 years ago. European Russia – 48 births per 1,000 inhabitants.

Such trends in developing countries have made it possible to overestimate the projected population of the Earth up to 2000 p. – 6.1 billion people. compared to previous estimates of 7.5 billion people.

However, the situation remains quite tense, as the area of ​​agricultural land is declining at the same time as the population is growing, mainly due to urbanization and soil degradation.

The area of ​​agricultural land per capita of the Earth decreases from 0.31 hectares in 1975 p. up to 0.15 ha in 2000p. According to UNESCO, desertification is occurring at a rate of 44 ha / min., Which, if this trend continues, will lead to the loss by the end of the century of a third of existing agricultural land.

The needs of the population are beginning to outpace the possibility of increasing the productivity of biological systems. For example, the growth of average annual world grain production has stopped since 1984, and 00H experts expect that this figure may decrease. Ultimately, this leads to a loss consequences of ecological balance and can have adverse consequences for humans as a species.

However, it is not necessary to absolutize the negative trends in nature management, as it contrasts scientific and technological progress and improving the welfare of the population with the preservation of the environment. If scientific and technological progress is focused on the goals selected in accordance with the criteria of national benefit and social justice, it is possible to implement the formula of harmonious use of nature – conservation and prosperity.

The objective preconditions for this lie in the very mechanism of the impact of scientific and technological progress on the state of the environment. Expanding the scale of production without solving the problems of rational nature management is already technically and economically impossible, because the deterioration of the natural environment is also a deterioration of the material conditions of production. No less important is another, feedback – the impact of the natural environment on the minds of people, which encourages the formation of new reasonable demands of society focused on a frugal attitude to nature.

Thus, the main economic and environmental problem of scientific and technological progress in agriculture and agriculture in general, which lies at the intersection of purely economic and environmental problems, is now that the development of science and technology, intensifying the use of scientific and technological potential that serves them, subordinate and focus on solving the following strategic objectives:

a comprehensive increase in the productivity of social labor and the efficiency of the functioning of the agricultural sector of the economy, a constant increase in the production of agricultural and livestock products, improving its quality and working conditions; creation of fundamentally new types of equipment and technologies of agricultural production, improvement of their quality and change of composition and structure, increase on this basis of productivity, stability and efficiency of agrozooecosystems, minimization of negative impact of agriculture on the environment; development and implementation in agricultural production of environmentally friendly technical and technological means capable of maintaining the optimal level of environmental parameters and ecological balance in it.


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The concept of pollution. classification of environmental pollution and sources of pollution. Abstract

Environmental pollution means the entry into the biosphere of any solid, liquid and gaseous substances or types of energy (heat, sound, radioactivity, etc.) in quantities that adversely affect humans, animals and plants, both directly and indirectly by

The concept of pollution. Classification of environmental pollution

Directly objects of pollution (acceptors of polluted substances) are the main components of the ecotope (habitat of the biotic group):

atmosphere, water, soil.

Indirect objects of pollution (victims of pollution) are components of biogeocenosis:

plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms.

Human interference in natural processes in the biosphere, which causes undesirable for ecosystems anthropogenic changes, can be grouped by the following types of pollution:

ingredient pollution – pollution by a set of substances quantitatively or qualitatively hostile to natural biogeocenoses (ingredient – a component of a complex compound or mixture); parametric pollution is associated with changes in the qualitative parameters of the environment (environmental parameter – one of its properties, such as noise, radiation, light); biocoenotic pollution is the impact on the composition and structure of the population of living organisms; stationary-destructive pollution (station – habitat of the population, destruction – destruction) causes changes in landscapes and ecological systems in the process of nature management.

Sources of pollution

Sources of pollution are very diverse: among them not only industrial enterprises and the fuel and energy complex, but also household waste, animal waste, transport, and chemicals that humans purposefully introduce into the ecosystem to protect useful producers and consumers from pests, diseases and storms. …

Pollution ingredients include thousands of chemical compounds, especially heavy metals and oxides, toxic substances and aerosols. Different emission sources may be the same in composition and nature of pollutants.

So hydrocarbons enter the atmosphere during fuel combustion, and from the oil refining industry, and from the gas industry.

Sources of pollutants are diverse, as well as numerous types of waste and the nature of their impact on the components of the biosphere. The biosphere is polluted by solid waste, gas emissions and wastewater from metallurgical, metalworking and machine-building plants. Wastewater from the pulp and paper, food, woodworking, and petrochemical industries causes enormous damage to water resources.

The development of road transport has led to the pollution of the atmosphere of cities and transport communications with heavy metals and toxic hydrocarbons, and the constant increase in the scale of maritime transport has caused almost universal pollution of the seas and oceans with oil and petroleum products …

Mass use of mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection products has led to the emergence of pesticides in the atmosphere, soils and natural waters, pollution of nutrients in water bodies, watercourses and agricultural products (nitrates, pesticides, etc.). During mining, millions of tons of various, often phytotoxic rocks are extracted to the earth’s surface, forming waste and burning dumps and dumps.

During the operation of chemical plants and thermal power plants, huge amounts of solid waste (cinders, slags, ashes, etc.) are also formed, which are stored in large areas, having a negative impact on the atmosphere, surface and groundwater, soil cover (sawing, separation gases, etc.).

Table 1. Sources of environmental emissions


Type of emissions


Coal, metal, paper

Emissions that contain particles of sand, rock and other mechanical impurities

May disturb natural ecosystems, sanitation, silt the bottom and shore

Machine-building Plants, chemical industry enterprises

Emissions from neutralization and wastewater treatment

The environment is polluted by heavy metal salts, cyanides, acids, toxic organic and inorganic compounds

Ore beneficiation, coal beneficiation, tanneries

Contamination that contains micro- and macroelements

Environmental pollution by excessive amounts of micro- and macroelements, in some cases by pathogens; (tanneries)

Alcohol, sugar, starch and other plants

Pollution containing organic compounds of plant and animal origin

Pollution of the environment with organic compounds that rot easily can cause infectious diseases


One of the successful classifications of pollution was proposed by R.