Some artisans depended on their owners – boyars, merchants and more.
They secured the border from the onset of steppe hordes. But cities became even more important in the process of creating Slavic statehood. The construction of fortifications required significant costs and joint work of large groups of people. The population, which together built the city, created a single organization that used the fortifications, took care of their defense, provided them with various means. Economic needs were closely connected with military needs. The city became the center of the whole neighborhood, dominated it, had a decisive say in all matters: “whatever the officers decide, the suburbs will agree to it” – says the chronicle. With the spread of Christianity in Russia, cities began to appear near large monasteries.
The social composition of the urban population of Kievan Rus was extremely diverse, which is a characteristic feature of medieval society. The urban population was divided into two main groups: the urban lower classes and the urban aristocracy. The latter included princes, boyars, higher clergy, merchants. The urban lower classes (artisans, small traders, ordinary clergy) were the most numerous category of the urban population. The majority of citizens were personally free. Some artisans depended on their owners – boyars, merchants and more. Personally free artisans (blacksmiths, potters, jewelers, gunsmiths, etc.) and small traders in the cities were taxed or worked, participating in the construction and repair of city fortifications, supervised their condition. Churches were built at the expense of the urban population, and a church parish was maintained.
The free artisan population was not homogeneous in composition. From the total mass of artisans stood out more affluent masters, who were dependent on them apprentices or students.
The craft began to emerge in patriarchal families as home crafts, in order to provide themselves and their relatives in the simplest products of everyday use: in linen fabrics, leather, utensils, shoes and more. These products did not go beyond the family and did not go on sale. In the process of further social division of labor, home crafts are allocated to a separate branch of the national economy – handicraft production. Artisans gradually began to produce products not only for domestic consumption of the patriarchal family, but also for exchange. They pay less attention to agriculture, eventually losing touch with agriculture, moving to the urban population.
The masters settled in the cities with their families in separate positions, settlements, streets according to the specified branch principle: settlements – potters, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, etc.
Handicraft production reached its development in the XI – XII centuries, when in Russia there were several dozen specialties. In the presence of high demand for iron products (tools for agriculture, weapons for soldiers) the first place in handicraft production was occupied by mining metallurgy, which at that time was often combined with metalworking. The range of iron products numbered about 150 names, and ancient Russian blacksmiths mastered all the then known technical and technological methods of its processing: forging, welding, hardening, inlay with non-ferrous metals.
Trade and money circulation
The state of agriculture and handicraft production determined the level of development of trade, both domestic and foreign. The largest trade communications were the “Greek” or “Greek” routes that connected Russia with the Baltic and Black Sea markets, the “Salt” and “Zlazny” which led to Galicia and the Caucasus. The Kyiv-Halych-Prague-Regensburg route connected Kievan Rus with the countries of Central and Western Europe.
Traditionally, trade was called “guest” traders themselves, or merchants, “guests” and places of trade – “graveyards”. Later, after the adoption of Christianity, temples began to be built at graveyards, and cemeteries were built near them.
The merchants-guests were traditionally respected, the population and the state highly appreciated their work. In the IX – XII centuries. for the murder of a merchant it was necessary to pay a fine of 12 hryvnias in silver, ie twice as much as for a simple stench.
Russia supplied fur, honey, wax, leather, some handicrafts, agricultural products, and slaves to international markets. She also imported gold, silver, precious fabrics, wine, utensils, objects of Christian worship, and weapons. The main trade partners of the Old Russian state were Byzantium, Volga-Kama Bulgaria, Khazaria, the countries of the Arab East, the Scandinavian, Central and Western European countries.
In Russia, there were merchants’ associations specializing in trade with certain countries or certain types of goods. Merchant corporations of “buckwheat” “railroaders” traded with Byzantium and the Caucasus. In Kiev, Novgorod, Smolensk, Vladimir and other cities were trading yards of foreign merchants.
As a result of the development of trade in Russia, money appears. As a means of exchange, money in the Eastern Slavs existed long ago, long before the formation of the Old Russian state. In ancient times, the southern Slavs used animals instead of money in exchange, so later metal money was also called “cattle” and the prince’s treasury “kotnitsa”. In the northern regions, where the population was engaged in hunting, the money was used for the fur of valuable animals, including martens – “kuna”. Over time, this name was transferred to metal money.
In Kievan Rus, money was hardly minted, but Arab and Byzantine gold and silver coins were used, mainly for foreign trade. Silver and copper ingots were much more widespread within the country. Thus, from the XI century. known unit “hryvnia” – an ingot of silver weighing one pound, or about 400 g. The hryvnia was cut in half and each half of the hryvnia was called “ruble” or “ruble” hryvnia. The prince’s brand was placed on the ingot, where the weight was indicated. Then the “ruble” was divided into two parts – two halves, and then another two halves – two quarters. The names of small monetary units have long retained the echo of the so-called “fur money”: cut, fast (skin), white (protein), ears, muzzles, etc.
It is necessary to mention the practice of credit operations, reflected in the legislation. In the text of “Russkaya Pravda” there are such concepts as “loan for friendship” “money for growth” “interest” “trade on credit” “long-term and short-term credit” “profit” was determined by the order of debt repayment.
It was not considered Christian to take high interest rates on a loan. When at the beginning of the XII century. creditors began to take 50% per annum, the population of Kiev opposed such terms of the contract, and Grand Duke Vladimir Monomakh was forced to intervene. He adopted the “Charter of cuts” (interest), according to which the debt interest rate should not exceed 20%. It was forbidden to enslave semi-dependent people who worked off their debt to the lender. The same Charter forbade parasitic usury. Vladimir Monomakh’s charter legally completed the creation of the feudal system of the Old Russian state.
Let’s summarize some results. Written sources of the first millennium record the Slavs on the border of the Forest and the Forest-Steppe in the interfluve of the Dnieper and the Upper Volga. This is confirmed by new archaeological materials that testify to the continuity of material monuments in the region, as well as linguistic data, including hydronymy. According to archaeological materials, starting from the middle of the first millennium, the Slavs are divided into eastern and western. At the same time, the southern group of Slavs was formed.
In the process of progressive socio-economic development – from the primitive community to large tribal alliances and the emergence of feudal relations – the Eastern Slavs reached their statehood.
From the IX century. to the middle of the XII century. Kievan Rus has come a long way, rich in various events and processes. During the formation of statehood, the East Slavic tribes formed a single ancient n nation. Russia opened a new feudal period in the history of the peoples of Eastern Europe. However, the relentless progress of on the path of social progress in the middle of the XIII century. interrupted by the Mongol-Tatar invasion.
Economy and finances of Zaporozhye. Abstract
Zaporizhzhya economy gradually evolved from simple to complex forms, from basic crafts in the pristine steppe to organized livestock and farming.
In the economy of Zaporozhye, agriculture has long played a secondary role. Due to its complexity, it was unprofitable. Livestock, on the other hand, was five times more profitable than farming. Common fisheries were fishing, beekeeping and hunting. These industries have long been the main sources of Zaporozhye wealth.
A milestone in the development of the Sich economy can be considered 1734 – the year of the Cossacks’ renunciation of citizenship to the Crimean Khanate, return to Ukraine and the establishment of the New Sich. Conditions are being created for the transition from semi-subsistence farming to commodity farming. Natural and social conditions determined the organizational form of Zaporozhye management in the steppe – winter (farm). Thus, one of the winterers of the last Kosh Ataman Peter Kalnyshevsky was in the Beam Water at a distance of 50 km from the Sich. There were three houses, one of which was a manor house – two-room, with four windows and a wooden roof. The other two, covered with reeds, had servants. There were also two large barns, a barn, two cellars, two stables, a smithy and a windmill. 30 workers worked here.
DI Yavornytsky believed that there were several thousand winterers. Most of them are small semi-subsistence farms. The individual sector of the Zaporizhzhya economy can be characterized as a self-sufficient subsistence economy, when any personal activity is complemented by land management. This patriarchal-parcel type of rural economy is quite democratic, but it is internally unstable.
In Zaporozhye, the economic system was based on the idea of ownership, not ownership. The land was owned by the army, it belonged to each and every Cossack enlisted in the army. As for land, Sich and chicken property – none of the Cossacks was a person separated from the community. But the Zaporizhzhya Army itself, as a legal entity, was not a private owner, because the military property of that time was identical to the modern state property.