Ukraine’s European and Euro-Atlantic structures are, of course, the main strategic goal of the state.
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Ukraine’s priorities in the process of gaining NATO membership for the future. Abstract
Ukraine’s integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures is, of course, the main strategic goal of the state. Today, Ukraine is seen as a “support and generator of stability and security in Europe.” It is seen as a strategic chain between the West and the East, the North and the South, a unique strategic partner of the European Union and a special partner of NATO.
The problems and interests of Ukraine related to Euro-Atlantic integration outlined above logically lead to the question of the path and procedures for gaining NATO membership. The answer to this question requires determining the conditions for membership in the Alliance, the motives and needs of NATO in the accession of certain new members.
To a large extent, the expansion of the Alliance is conditioned by the logic of the organization’s development, the transformation of its function and strategic priorities. Since NATO’s inception, its history has been divided into two major periods.
The first historical period of the organization’s existence dates back to the Cold War, when the Alliance was an extremely important structural component of the bipolar world, or rather the bipolar confrontation. It was this logic of the Cold War that determined the procedure and motives for admitting new members to NATO: Greece and Turkey joined in 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982.
The Alliance’s need for new members was driven primarily by military-strategic interests, motivated by bloc confrontation with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. In this context, Greece and Turkey formed NATO’s leading south-eastern flank. The geostrategic location of these countries severely limited the Soviet Union’s influence over the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Spain was also of great military and strategic importance in terms of the base of NATO’s advanced forces.
Germany was at the epicenter of the military confrontation, was its front. It is no coincidence that the most extensive military infrastructure, on which the largest military group of NATO forces was based, was located on its territory. The Bundeswehr provided a significant portion of the Alliance’s total combat potential.
But along with the military-strategic interests, the accession of each country was conditioned by certain political needs of NATO, the main of which from the very beginning was the need to protect democratic values. In the 1950’s, the threat of authoritarianism loomed over Greece.
Turkey at the time was threatened with transformation into a theocratic Islamic state. NATO membership has made it possible to consolidate its secular system and keep it in the fairway of European orientation. Germany’s accession to the Alliance was largely due to the efforts of Western democracies to prevent the resumption of German revanchism in that country. Spain’s accession to NATO was dictated by the difficult process of liberation from the legacy of the totalitarian regime of Franco.
The young Spanish democracy needed political support from the Alliance. Thus, these motives and the logic of the Cold War determined the procedure for joining NATO, outlined in Articles 10 and 11 of the Washington Treaty. Article 10 states that “The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State capable of implementing the principles of this Treaty and promoting security in the North Atlantic Treaty to accede to this Treaty.
Any State so invited may become a Party to this Agreement by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America shall notify each Party of the deposit of any such instrument of accession. “
The instrument of accession, as referred to in Article 11 of the Treaty, must be an instrument of ratification, which is evidence that the candidate country has ratified the Treaty. Thus, accession includes a mandatory procedure for its ratification in parliament in accordance with the relevant constitutional procedures.
Thus, the basic requirements for inviting a country to join NATO under the Washington Treaty are:
geographical location of the country: it must be a state of the European continent; ability to implement democratic principles, devotion to them; the ability to contribute to collective defense and contribute to the security of the North Atlantic region.
The ratification of the Treaty by a candidate country is a mandatory procedure for joining NATO.
The second historical period of the Alliance’s existence can be described as post-bipolar. It is characterized by the transformation of international relations from a bipolar to a monopolar system. It is under the influence of this trend that NATO is being forced to transform significantly, primarily due to the reduction of the traditional Cold War military threat and the emergence of new “soft threats”, some of which, including terrorism, are becoming global. Such changes in the international environment are forcing NATO to shift its focus from purely defense to non-security issues.
In this historic period, NATO is taking on a new role due to the unsuitability of the mechanisms that guarded security in an era of bipolar world, causing regional instability and local conflicts. Internal instability often leads to the reproduction of authoritarian regimes. This is a direct threat to the democratic values that NATO is called upon to defend.
NATO’s main need in this post-bipolar period is to protect young democracies in Central and Eastern European countries that have just liberated themselves from communist authoritarian regimes. This need determines the logic of NATO’s expansion to the East, the peculiarity of which is that the young democracies of the countries of the former socialist camp are primarily interested in joining NATO, and not the members of the Alliance themselves. These new conditions and time needs could not but affect the NATO accession process.
The authors of the monograph “Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine: military-political aspects” T. Brezhnev, O. Izhak, A. Shevtsov mean modern modified procedures for NATO membership as an “open door” policy. This wording can be accepted, as it clearly shows the philosophy behind the new logic of NATO enlargement. The “open door” indicates that formally anyone who wants to be present in the house called the “North Atlantic Alliance” can enter.
In other words, from now on, the initiative should not belong to the inviting members, but to the countries that want to join the Alliance. This initiative is that countries wishing to enter these “open doors” must submit a written statement of such intentions. Only then will NATO members consider inviting or not inviting a country to the Alliance, depending on whether it meets the requirements for membership.
As a result of this logic, the entry procedure has become more advanced in time and much more in-depth in content. It began to be clearly visible, the two phases of the invitation – political and legal. The political phase involves demonstrating the country’s intentions to join NATO in the form of a formal application, supported by the necessary internal procedure.
The application is nothing more than a political decision of the country to join the Alliance, and does not imply any obligations. However, it is a necessary prerequisite for the transition to the second phase of accession – legal. The passage of the political phase should convince members of the Alliance of the readiness and ability of the candidate country to make legal commitments to membership.
The legal phase begins when the North Atlantic Council issues an invitation to a NATO candidate country. It includes: confirmation by the country of its readiness to join the Alliance; signing of the accession protocol by the North Atlantic Council; ratification by NATO member countries of the accession protocol; ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty by the acceding country; transfer of instruments of ratification to the United States government.
Thus, the logic behind these procedures is for candidate countries to comply with a number of requirements set out in documents such as the NATO Enlargement Study and the NATO Membership Action Plan.
The “NATO Enlargement Study”, published and passed on to candidate countries, was, in fact, the first document outlining the conditions for membership in the Alliance in the post-bipolar period. It identifies and substantiates the main need and motivation for the expansion of this organization. The accession procedure set out in the Study is based on the principles of Article 10 of the Washington Treaty.
At the same time, the requirements for membership included positions that reflected the new conditions of the post-bipolar period, key of which were internal instability and local conflicts, as well as Russia’s objections to NATO enlargement. Taking these factors into account, the Study sets out the following additional requirements for membership in the Alliance:
resolution of interethnic conflicts, external territorial disputes, as well as disputes over internal jurisdiction by peaceful means in accordance with OSCE principles; the ability of the countries concerned to make their military contribution not only to collective defense but also to peacekeeping and other new Alliance missions; the absence of a veto or “right of oversight” over the enlargement process and the decisions taken in this regard by countries outside the Alliance.
Decisions to invite a new member to join the Alliance are made on the basis of a consensus based on each a tree grows in brooklyn movie summary member’s own opinion as to whether a particular candidate country can contribute to the security and stability of the North Atlantic region. Based on this procedure and the requirements set out in the Study, the first three countries of Central and Eastern Europe were invited to the Alliance at the NATO Summit in Madrid in July 1997: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.